Published Date: 2012-08-20 10:30:51
Subject: PRO/PL Wart disease, potato – UK: (N Ireland) eradication
Archive Number: 20120820.1252253
WART DISEASE, POTATO – UK: (NORTHERN IRELAND) ERADICATION
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Fri 17 Aug 2012
Source: FreshPlaza [edited]
Northern Ireland free of potato wart disease after 50 years
750 fields in Northern Ireland have faced potato growing restrictions for the past 50 years, but this is now at an end.
The fields were once contaminated by potato wart disease, which affected Ireland in the early 20th century. Northern Ireland has not had a case since 1959, but the disease is virulent and can remain in the soil for over 30 years. As a result the fields had to be kept clear of seed potatoes until now, when the restrictions have been lifted.
This restrictions applied to some 70 000 acres [about 173 000 acres] of cultivation overall. The move to remove the restrictions comes after 10 years of sampling and testing of affected land, between 2001 and 2011.
[Potato wart disease is caused by the fungus _Synchytrium endobioticum_, which is considered one of the most important pathogens of the crop. It is endemic in Europe and also reported from a number of locations in the Americas, Australasia, and Africa. The pathogen can also affect tomato and some solanaceous weeds and has been included in the quarantine lists of the European Plant Protection Organisation (EPPO).
On infected tubers, 'eyes' develop into characteristic warty, cauliflower-like swellings. If infected early, the whole tuber can be replaced by a warty proliferation. Warts darken with age and eventually rot and disintegrate. Diagnosis requires laboratory confirmation as similar symptoms can be caused by other pathogens. The fungus goes through cycles of proliferation and reinfection as long as cool, wet conditions prevail and is therefore less damaging in warm, light, well drained soils.
The disease is spread with soil (for example on farm tools), by infected seed tubers, and also in manure from animals fed on infected potatoes. The fungus can survive in soil for up to 40 years in the absence of a host. Disease management is based on the control of pathogen spread since fungicides are ineffective. There are several pathotypes defined by their virulence on different host cultivars. Potato varieties resistant to a number of them have been developed but new pathogen strains are emerging compromising the efficacy of host plant resistance.
A potato wart free status of Northern Ireland will result in economic and trade advantages for regional potato growers. Furthermore, this represents an important achievement since eradication of plant pathogens is extremely difficult and rarely successful.
Potato wart symptoms:
Photo gallery of tuber symptoms and fungal structures:
Additional news story:
Information on potato wart disease:
Potato wart diagnosis:
_S. endobioticum_ taxonomy:
EPPO A2 quarantine list:
http://www.eppo.org/QUARANTINE/listA2.htm. - Mod.DHA]
Wart disease, potato – India: (WB) 20091225.4346
Potato wart disease – Canada: (PEI), spread 20071102.3559
Pale cyst nematode wart, potato – USA 20070629.2088
Quarantine Pests, New Data – EPPO (02) 20060531.1521
Potato wart disease – Turkey (Ordu Province): 1st report 20050406.0990
Plant pests, new data, EPPO 20031204.2986
Potato wart disease – Estonia: eradicated 20030731.1872
Potato wart disease – Canada (PEI) (02) 20020907.5253
Potato wart disease – Canada (Prince Edward Island) 20020906.5243
Potato wart, potato – Canada (Prince Edward Island) 20011229.3136
and older items in the archives]
Article source: http://healthmap.org/ln.php?1252253&promed&0