Published Date: 2012-08-17 17:55:05
Subject: PRO/AH Peste des petits ruminants – Kenya (02): (RV) conf
Archive Number: 20120817.1249510
PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS – KENYA (02): (RIFT VALLEY) CONFIRMED
A ProMED-mail post
ProMED-mail is a program of the
International Society for Infectious Diseases
Date: Thu 16 Aug 2012
Source: Standard Digital News [edited]
A highly infectious viral disease of small ruminants, mostly sheep and goats, has spread to West Pokot County [Rift Valley Province].
The peste des petits ruminants (PPR) disease, as it is commonly known, has killed hundreds of livestock in Kerio Valley in a span of 2 weeks, sparking panic among residents.
Statistics indicate that the PPR infection has already claimed over 300 goats and sheep in Masol and Sigor divisions of West Pokot.
District veterinary officer Dr William Kibet said his office has launched a 30-day vaccination exercise against the pandemic that is threatening the livelihood of herders. “The major challenge we face in eradicating the disease is that our neighbouring districts don’t carry out the exercise on time and when animals migrate from one area to another, chances of the disease spreading are high,” he said.
Dr Kibet said symptoms of the disease include diarrhoea, mouth rashes, and discharge from eyes and nose. It is also characterised by high rates of infection and death.
The most affected regions are Amolem, Nyangaita, Takainwa, and Akulo areas in Pokot Central District.
Dr Kibet appealed to non-governmental organisations to help curb the spread of the disease.
According to the animal doctor, the viral infection is common in the low regions of the county and the ministry has been controlling its spread by vaccinating animals before the onset of rains. He asked neighbouring districts to vaccinate their animals jointly to help eradicate the killer disease in their regions.
In Kerio Valley, the Government is vaccinating more than 150 000 livestock to contain the spread.
A report by Livestock Veterinary Laboratory referral facility in Nairobi indicates the disease is suspected to have spread to Kerio Valley from Ethiopia through Turkana County.
Dr Bernard Moenga, a Ministry of Livestock official in charge of Veterinary Disease Control, said the disease had earlier been detected in Turkana but was contained, only to re-emerge again in Kerio Valley and parts of Isiolo and Garissa. Livestock farmers have complained of heavy losses following the outbreak.
[byline: Osinde Obare]
ProMED-mail rapporteur George A Robertson
[The information above, based upon official sources, provides a clearer picture of the current PPR situation in Kenya. Earlier information on cattle health problems remains to be clarified.
According to the official OIE information, PPR reportedly entered Kenya in August 2006 (see OIE notifications, with map, at http://www.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summaryreportid=4526). The disease was declared endemic in Kenya on 16 May 2007.
The disease, reportedly entered Uganda in March-April 2007 (see posting 20070325.1037
below and OIE notifications, with map, at http://web.oie.int/wahis/public.php?page=event_summaryreportid=5837). The disease was declared endemic in Uganda on 10 Aug 2007.
Following its spread into Tanzania, in November 2010 the FAO published a warning about the potential spread of PPR to Southern Africa, "posing a mortal threat to more than 50 million sheep and goats in 15 countries."
Interestingly, according to the following paper, the virus may have been present in Kenya much earlier:
Wamwayi, HM, Rossiter PB, Kariuki DP, et al. Peste de petits ruminants antibodies in East Africa. Vet Rec 1995; 136(8): 199-200.
"During routine serosurveillance in Kenya and Uganda, serum samples from 16 goats sampled in 1981 and 1985 were examined for rinderpest virus (RPV) and pest of small ruminants virus (PPRV) antibodies using specific monoclonal based competitive ELISA (cELISA); 6 samples were positive for cELISA antibodies against RPV and 3 samples collected from goats in eastern Uganda in 1985, were positive for cELISA antibodies to PPRV. In a further survey carried out on serum samples collected from 1025 sheep and goats between 1987 and 1991, 2 (0.8 per cent) of 262 samples collected in northern Kenya in 1987/88 and 7 (13 per cent) of 54 samples collected in western Kenya in 1991, were PPRV antibody positive. These results suggest that the geographical range of PPRV has extended south from Sudan and Ethiopia."
We are indebted to Dr Giuseppe (Beppe) Di Giulio (Arusha, Tanzania) for his following observation (edited):
"Achieving satisfactory PPR vaccination coverage of small ruminants is difficult (compared to cattle rinderpest vaccination), particularly in goats. This, mainly due to their reproduction rate: shorter gestation, high twinning percentage. You will need 2-3 rounds of vaccinations per year."
The HealthMap/ProMED-mail interactive map of Kenya can be seen at http://healthmap.org/r/36MC. The location of the Kerio valley is presented in the map at http://www.hobohideout.com/mp_kenya_kerio-valley_map.php.
For further background on PPR, including pictures, see the FAO field manual "Recognising PPR" at http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/003/X1703E/X1703E00.HTM.
PPR is not zoonotic. - Mod.AS]
Peste des petits ruminants – Kenya: (RV) susp, RFI 20120805.1229335
Peste des petits ruminants – Southern Africa: FAO warning 20101103.3988
Peste des petits ruminants – Tanzania: (AS), OIE, RFI 20090314.1056
Peste des petits ruminants – Uganda (Moroto): OIE 20070731.2471
Peste des petits ruminants – Uganda (Karamoja): susp. 20070325.1037
Peste des petits ruminants – Kenya (Rift Valley): OIE 20070117.0226]
Article source: http://healthmap.org/ln.php?1249510&promed&0